How does the TCS3200 Color Sensor work?

The TCS3200 Color Sensor operates based on the principle of light-to-frequency conversion. The sensor array consists of four types of light-sensitive photodiodes with corresponding color filters: red, green, blue, and clear. When light falls on the sensor, the photodiodes generate electrical signals proportional to the intensity of each color component.

The TCS3200 module also includes an integrated frequency-to-voltage converter, which converts the frequency of the generated signals into analog voltage levels. The microcontroller can then measure these analog voltage outputs and process them to determine the color of the object being sensed.

To measure a color, the sensor illuminates the object with white light, and the color filters determine the ratio of the different color components present in the reflected light. By counting the frequency of the output pulses for each color component, the microcontroller can determine the color composition of the object.